CRITICAL ISSUE 15:
Legal Context and Rights
This issue brief provides a general overview of some of the legal issues and context that affect First Nations that are involved in BA negotiations for LNG projects in BC. This is not a comprehensive resource and is based on a review of available academic and policy work on BAs that have predominantly been implemented in the mining sector.
Within Canada, there is no single legislative or policy framework that governs the negotiation of BAs (Gibson and O’Faircheallaigh, 2015, 34; Hummel, 2019, 371). In some jurisdictions, they can be required by legislation or by modern treaty and land claims agreements; however, most emerge voluntarily as a consequence of the entrenchment of Aboriginal and treaty rights in the Canadian constitution in 1982.
For a general overview of the current legal and political context within which BC’s LNG sector is developing, readers may wish to consult the fact-sheet produced by the First Nations LNG Alliance entitled “First Nations issues and development of BC’s LNG industry”. The fact sheet sheds light on exclusionary patterns of colonial resource development that historically and contemporarily prevented Indigenous people from participating in and benefitting from the resources sector.
Read more (opens in new tab)
AEM – Agnico Eagle Mines Limited
ASDF – Ahafo Sustainable Development Forum
AWBEN – Aboriginal Women’s Business Entrepreneurship Network
BA – Benefit Agreement BC British Columbia
BCFNDGI – BC First Nations Data Governance Initiative
BMZ German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development
BNL – Barrick Niugini Limited
BSA – Benefit Sharing Agreement
CBA – Community Benefit Agreement
CDA – Community Development Agreement
CIRNAC – Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada
DIO – Designated Inuit Organizations
EIA – Environmental Impact Assessment
EMB – Environmental Management Board
EWB-MSV – Engineers Without Borders Canada - Mining Shared Value Initiative
FNFTA – First Nations Financial Transparency Act
FNLNGA – First Nations Liquefied Natural Gas Alliance
FNNBOA – First Nations National Building Officer’s Association
FPIC – Free, Prior and Informed Consent
GIZ – German Development Agency
HIA – Health Impact Assessment
IA – Impact Assessment
IBA – Impact Benefit Agreement
ICMM – International Council on Mining and Metals
IFC – International Finance Corporation
IFI – International Financial Institution
IIBA – Innuit Impact Benefit Agreement
INAC – Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada
IOL – Inuit-Owned Lands
ISC – Indigenous Services Canada
KitIA – Kitikmeot Inuit Association
KivIA – Kivalliq Inuit Association
KLC – Kimberley Land Council
LIA – Labrador Innuit Association
LLG – Local Level Government
LNG – Liquefied Natural Gas
M&E – Monitoring and Evaluation
NADeF – Newmont Ahafo Development Foundation
NLC – Northern Land Council
NLCA – Nunavut Land Claims Agreement
NTI – Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated
OSR – Own-Source Revenue
PJV – Porgera Joint Venture
PSAB – Procurement Strategy for Aboriginal Business
QIA – Qikiqtani Inuit Association
SEMC – Socio-Economic Monitoring Committee
SML – Special Mining Lease
TCS – Tax Credit Scheme
UNDRIP – United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
Adebayo, E., & Werker, E. (2021). How Much are Benefit-sharing Agreements Worth to Communities Affected by Mining?. Resources Policy. 71.
Agbaitoro, G. (2018). Legal Strategy for Resolving the Socio-economic and Environmental Symptoms of the Resource curse in Nigeria: The Role of Impact and Benefit Agreements (IBAs). Commonwealth Law Bulletin, 44(3), 381–399.
Aman, A.K. (2020). Community Benefit Agreements: Systematic Literature Review [1990-2020]. University of British Columbia. Accessed at: https://cirdi.ca/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/CBA-Lit-Review-Preliminary-Findings-Report.pdf.
Andrews, T., Elizalde, B., LeBillon, P., Oh, C.H., Reyes, D., & Thomson, I. (2018). The Rise in Conflict Associated with Mining Operations: What Lies Beneath?University of British Columbia. Accessed at: https://cirdi.ca/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Conflict-Full-Layout-060817.pdf.
Baikie, G., & Dean, L. 2015. Claiming our place: Local women matter in natural resource development. Ottawa: Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women. Accessed February 2018. Accessed at: http://fnn.criaw-icref.ca/images/userfiles/files/ClaimingOurPlace.pdf.
Baird, K. (2021). Peer-review feedback provided via email to research team on behalf of the FNLNGA.
Barrera-Hernández, L., Barton, B., Godden, L., Lucas, A., & Rønne, A. (Eds.). (2016). Sharing the Costs and Benefits of Energy and Resource Activity: Legal Change and Impact on Communities. Oxford University Press.
Bastick, M. (2015). Gender and Complaints Mechanisms: A Handbook for Armed forces and Ombuds Institutions to Prevent and Respond to Gender-related Discrimination, Harassment, Bullying and Abuse. Geneva: DCAF.
Berman, M., Loeffler, R., and Schmidt, J.I. (2020). Long-term Benefits to Indigenous Communities of Extractive Industry Partnerships: Evaluating the Red Dog Mine. Resources Policy, 66, 101609.
Bernauer, W. (2011). Mining and the Social Economy in Baker Lake, Nunavut. University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon: Prepared for the Northern Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan Regional Node of the Social Economy Suite.
Blunt, P. (2014). Whose resources are they anyway? ‘Development Assistance’ and Community Fevelopment Agreements in the Mongolian Mining Sector. Progress in Development Studies, 14(4), 383–399.
Blunt, P., & Sainkhuu, G. (2015). Serendipity and Stealth, Resistance and Retribution: Policy Development in the Mongolian Mining Sector. Progress in Development Studies, 15(4), 371–385.
Boakye, B., Cascadden, M., Kuschminder, J., Szoke-Burke, S., & Werker, E. (2018). Implementing the Ahafo Benefit Agreements: Seeking Meaningful Community Participation at Newmont’s Ahafo Gold Mine in Ghana. Canadian International Resources and Development Institute (CIRDI). Accessed at: http://ccsi.columbia.edu/2018/07/25/implementing-the-ahafo-benefit-agreements-seeking-meaningful-community-participation-at-newmonts-ahafo-gold-mine-in-ghana.
Bone, R.M. ( 2009). The Canadian North: Issues and Challenges. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Bradshaw, B., Fidler, C., & Wright, A. (2016). Impact and Benefit Agreements & Northern Resource Governance: What We know and What We Still Need to Figure Out. Resources and Sustainable Development in the Arctic. http://yukonresearch.yukoncollege.yk.ca/resda/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2013/09/9-Bradshaw-Fidler-and-Wright-final-paper2016.pdf.
Brereton, D., Owen, J., & Kim, J. (2011). Good Practice Note: Community Development Agreements. The Centre for Social Responsibility in Mining (CSRM). https://www. csrm.uq.edu.au/Portals/0/docs/CSRM-CDA-report.pdf.
BC Government (Government of British Columbia). (2021). Indigenous Peoples and LNG. Accessed: https://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/industry/natural-gas-oil/lng/indigenous-peoples-and-lng.
BC Government – Ministry of Finance. (2021). Indigenous Procurement and Contract Management Guidelines. Accessed at: https://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/british-columbians-our-governments/services-policies-for-government/policiesprocedures/core-policy-manual/policies/indigenous-procurement-contract-guidelines.pdf.
Bruckner, K. D. (2016). Community Development Agreements in Mining Projects. Denver Journal of International Law and Policy, 44(3), 413.
Caine, K. J., & Krogman, N. (2010). Powerful or Just Plain Power-Full? A Power Analysis of Impact and Benefit Agreements in Canada’s North. Organization & Environment, 23(1), 76–98.
Campbell, D., & Hunt, J. E. (2013). Achieving Broader Benefits from Indigenous Land Use Agreements: Community Development in Central Australia. Community Development Journal, 48(2), 197–214.
Cascadden, M., Gunton, T., and Rutherford, M. (2021). Best Practices for Impact Beneft Agreements. Resources Policy, 70, 101921.
Conteh, F. M., & Maconachie, R. (2019). Spaces for Contestation: The Politics of Community Development Agreements in Sierra Leone. Resources Policy, 61, 231–240.
Chevron Canada. (2021). Kitimat LNG Project. Accessed at: https://canada.chevron.com/our-businesses/kitimat-lng-project.
Craik, N., Gardner, H., & McCarthy, D. (2017). Indigenous – Corporate Private Governance and Legitimacy: Lessons learned from Impact and Benefit Agreements. Resources Policy, 52, 379–388.
Cueva, V. P. (2017). Impact Benefit Agreements and Economic and Environmental Risk Management in the Arctic. In C. Pelaudeix & E. M. Basse (Eds.), Governance of Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas (1st ed.). Routledge.
Danso, J., Aubynn, E., Coppel, A., John, Z., & Teschne, B. (2016). The Newmont Afaho Development Foundation: Putting Shared Value Into Action. InfoMine. https://s24.q4cdn.com/382246808/files/doc_downloads/operations_projects/africa/quick_links/Danso-Joseph-The-Newmont-Ahafo-Development-Foundation-–-putting-share....pdf.
Donihee, J. ( 2009). Land claim agreements and the North to 2030. Paper presented at the 2030 North National Planning Conference , Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Dupuy, K. E. (2017). Corruption and Elite Capture of Mining Community Development Funds in Ghana and Sierra Leone. In A. Williams & P. Le Billon, Corruption, Natural Resources and Development (69–79). Edward Elgar Publishing.
Engineers without Borders-Mining Shared Value (EWB-MSV). The Mining Local Procurement Reporting Mechanism. Accessed at:
Esteves, A.M., (2008). Mining and Social Development: Refocusing Community Investment Using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis. Resources Policy. 33. 39-47.
Farris, A. (2012). Natural Gas. Energy BC. Accessed at: http://www.energybc.ca/naturalgas.html.
Fasken. (2018). Environmental Bulletin, February 9, 2018. Accessed at: https://www.fasken.com/en/knowledge/2018/02/2018-02-09-environmental-bulletin.
Findlay, I.M & Wuttunee, W. (2007). Aboriginal Women’s Community Economic Development: Measuring and Promoting Success. Institute for Research on Public Policy. Accessed at: https://irpp.org/research-studies/aboriginal-womens-community-economic-development.
First Nations LNG Alliance (FNLNGA). (2021). Accessed at: https://www.fnlngalliance.com
First Nations National Building Officers Association (FNNBOA). (2021). Procurement in Indigenous Communities, Procurement Books. Accessed at: https://www.fnnboa.ca/procurement-in-indigenous-communities.
First Nations Pacific Trail Project Group Limited Partnership (FNLP). (2021). Accessed at: http://bcfnlp.ca
Fumoleau, R. ( 1975). As Long as this Land Shall Last: A History of Treaty 8 and Treaty 11, 1870-1939. East Lansing : Michigan State University Press.
Galbraith, L., 2003. Understanding the Need for Supraregulatory Agreements in Environmental Assessment: An Evaluation from the Mackenzie Valley, Northwest Territories. MA. Diss. Simon Fraser University.
Gathii, J., & Odumosu-Ayanu, I. T. (2016). The Turn to Contractual Responsibility in the Global Extractive Industry. Business and Human Rights Journal, 1(1), 69–94.
Gibson, G. , & Klinck, J. ( 2005). Canada’s Resilient North: The Impact of Mining on Aboriginal Communities. Pimatisiwin: A Journal of Aboriginal and Indigenous Community Health, 3(1), 115-139.
Gibson, G., & O’Faircheallaigh, C. (2015). IBA Community Toolkit: Negotiation and Implementation of Impact and Benefit Agreements. The Gordon Foundation. https://gordonfoundation.ca/resource/iba-community-toolkit.
Gibson, R. (2006). Beyond the Pillars: Sustainability Assessment as a Framework for Effective Integration of Social, Economic, and Ecological Considerations in Significant Decision-Making. Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management. 8 (3): 259-280.
Glasson, J. (2017). Large Energy Projects and Community Benefits Agreements—Some experience from the UK. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 65, 12–20.
Graben, S., Cameron, A., & Morales, S. (2020). Gender Impact Analysis of Impact Benefit Agreements: Representation Clauses and UNDRIP. Chapter 6 in Ibironke T. Odumosu-Ayanu, Dwight Newman (eds). Indigenous-Industry Agreements, Natural Resources and the Law. New York: Routledge.
Gunton, C., Batson, J., Gunton, T., Markety, S., and Dale, D. (2020). Impact Benefit Agreement Guidebook. Vancouver, Canadian International Resources and Development Institute and Simon Fraser University.
Hania, P. (2019). Revitalizing Indigenous Women’s Water Governance Roles in Impact and Benefit Agreement Processes Through Indigenous Legal Orders and Water Stories. Les Cahiers de Droit, 60(2), 519–556.
Harvey, B., & Nish, S. (2005). Rio Tinto and Indigenous Community Agreement Making in Australia. Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law, 23(4), 499–510.
Hira, A., & Busumtwi-Sam, J. (2018). Mining Community Benefits in Ghana: A Case of Unrealized Potential. Canadian International Resources and Development Institute (CIRDI). https://cirdi.ca/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Mining_Community_Benefits_in_Ghana_pdf.pdf.
Hitch, M., & Fidler, C. (2007). Impact and Benefit Agreements: A Contentious Issue for Environmental and Aboriginal Justice. Environments Journal, 32(2), 45–69.
Hughes, A. (2020). BC’s Carbon Conundrum: Why LNG exports Doom Emissions-reduction Targets and Compromise Canada’s Long-term Energy Security. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. Accessed: https://www.policyalternatives.ca/bc-carbon-conundrum.
Hummel, C. (2019). Behind the Curtain, Impact Benefit Agreement Transparency in Nunavut. Les Cahiers de droit, 60(2), 367.
Indigenous Services Canada. (2021). Indigenous Business and Federal Procurement, Procurement Strategy for Aboriginal Business.
Accessed at: https://www.sac-isc.gc.ca/eng/1100100032802/1610723869356.
Indigenous Women’s Business Network. (2021). About the Network. Accessed at: https://www.indigenouswomenbc.com
International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM). (2019). Handling and Resolving Local-level Concerns and Grievances: Human Rights in the Mining and Metals Sector. Accessed at: https://www.icmm.com/en-gb/guidance/social-performance/grievance-mechanism.
International Finance Corporation (IFC). (2009). Good Practice Note: Addressing Grievances from Project-Affected Communities.
Accessed at: https://www.scribd.com/fullscreen/21356198?access_key=key-d387qdvel3wbc9nnmxk.
Jones, J., & Bradshaw, B. (2015). Addressing Historical Impacts Through Impact and Benefit Agreements and Health Impact Assessment: Why it Matters for Indigenous Well-Being. The Northern Review, 41.
Keenan, J. C., Kemp, D. L., & Ramsay, R. B. (2016). Company–Community Agreements, Gender and Development. Journal of Business Ethics, 135(4), 607–615.
Keenan, J., & Kemp, D. (2014). Mining and local-level development: Examining the gender dimensions of agreements between companies and communities. Centre for Social Responsibility in Mining, The University of Queensland. https://www.csrm.uq.edu.au/publications/mining-and-local-level-development-examining-the-gender-dimensions-of-agreements-between-companies-and-communities.
Keenan, K., & Sosa, I. (2001). Impact Benefit Agreements Between Aboriginal Communities and Mining Companies: Their Use in Canada. Canadian Environmental Law Association. http://metisportals.ca/MetisRights/wp/wp-admin/images/Impact%20Benefit%20Agreements%20-%20Mining.pdf.
Kielland, N. (2015). Supporting Aboriginal Participation in Resource Development: The Role of Impact and Benefit Agreements. Legal and Social Affairs Division. Parliamentary Information and Research Service. Publication No. 2015-29-E. Accessed at: https://lop.parl.ca/staticfiles/PublicWebsite/Home/ResearchPublications/InBriefs/PDF/2015-29-e.pdf.
Klinck, R., Bradshaw, B., Sandy, R., Nabinacaboo, S., Mameanskum, M., Guanish, M., Einish, P., Guanish, G., & Pien, S. (2016). Enabling Community Well-being Self-Monitoring in the Context of Mining: The Naskapi Nation of Kawawachikamach. Engaged Scholar Journal: Community-Engaged Research, Teaching, and Learning, 1(2).
Knotsch, C., & Warda, J. (2009). Impact Benefit Agreements: A Toolkit for Healthy Inuit Communities. National Aboriginal Health Organization. Accessed at: http://hdl.handle.net/10393/30210.
Krehbiel, R. (2021). Peer-review feedback provided via email to research team on behalf of the FNLNGA.
Langton, M., &Longbottom, J. (2012). Community Futures, Legal Architecture: Foundations for Indigenous Peoples in the Global Mining Boom (1st ed.). Routledge.
Le Meur, P. Y., Horowitz, L. S., & Mennesson, T. (2012). “Horizontal” and “Vertical” Diffusion: The Cumulative Influence of Impact and Benefit Agreements (IBAs) on Mining Policy-Production in New Caledonia. Resources Policy, 38(4), 648–656.
Loutit, J., Mandelbaum, J., & Szoke-Burke, S. (2016). Emerging Practices in Community Development Agreements. Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy, 7(1), 64.
Manning, S., Nash, P., Levac, L., Stienstra, D., & Stinson, J. (2018). Strengthening Impact Assessments for Indigenous Women. Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women. Accessed at: https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/iaac-acei/documents/research/Stengthening-Impact-Assessments-for-Indigenous-Women-November-2018.pdf.
McCreary, T., Mills, S., & St-Amand, A. (2016). Lands and Resources for Jobs: How Aboriginal Peoples Strategically Use Environmental Assessments to Advance Community Employment Aims. Canadian Public Policy, 42(2), 212–223.
Meerveld, D. (2016). Assessing Value: A Comprehensive Study of Impact Benefit Agreements on Indigenous Communities of Canada. University of Ottawa. https://ruor.uottawa.ca/bitstream/10393/34816/4/Meerveld%2C%20Drew%2020161.pdf.
Mills, S., & Sweeney, B. (2013). Employment Relations in the Neostaples Resource Economy: Impact Benefit Agreements and Aboriginal Governance in Canada’s Nickel Mining Industry. Studies in Political Economy, 91, 1. 7-33.
Mihesuah, D. A. (2003). Indigenous American Women: Decolonization, Empowerment and Activism. University of Nebraska.
Mortensen, B. O. G. (2017). Impact and Benefit Agreements in Greenland. In C. Pelaudeix & E. M. Basse (Eds.), Governance of Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas (1st ed.). Routledge.
Nightingale, E., Czyzewski, K., Tester, F., & Aaruaq, N. (2017). The effects of resource extraction on Inuit women and their families: Evidence from Canada. Gender & Development 25 (3): 367.
Noble, B.F., & Fidler, C. (2011). Advancing Indigenous community-Corporate Agreements: Lessons from practice in the Canadian Mining Sector. Oil, Gas and Energy Law Intelligence 9(4): 1-30.
Nwapi, C. (2017). Legal and Institutional Frameworks for Community Development Agreements in the Mining Sector in Africa. The Extractive Industries and Society, 4(1), 202–215.
O’Faircheallaigh, C. (1997). Maximising Indigenous Benefits from Resource Development. MM Ross & JO Saunders eds. Disposition of Natural Resources: Options and Issues for Northern Lands, Canadian Institute of Resources Law Calgary, 225-47.
O’Faircheallaigh, C. (2003). Implementing Agreements Between Indigenous Peoples and Resource Developers in Australia and Canada. Aboriginal Politics and Public Sector Management.
O’Faircheallaigh, C. (2004). Evaluating Agreements between Indigenous Peoples and Resource Developers. In M. Langton (Ed.), Honour Among Nations: Treaties and Agreements with Indigenous People. Melbourne University Press.
O’Faircheallaigh, C. (2010). Aboriginal-Mining Company Contractual Agreements in Australia and Canada: Implications for Political Autonomy and Community Development. Canadian Journal of Development Studies / Revue Canadienne d’études Du Développement, 30(1–2), 69–86.
O’Faircheallaigh. C. (2012). Curse or opportunity? Chapter 2: Mineral revenues, rent seeking and development in Aboriginal Australia. In Langton, M and Longbottom, J. (2012). Community Futures, Legal Architecture: Foundations for Indigenous Peoples in the Global Mining Boom (1st ed.). Routledge.
O’Faircheallaigh, C. (2013). Community Development Agreements in the Mining Industry: An Emerging Global Phenomenon. Community Development, 44(2), 222–238.
O’Faircheallaigh, C. (2015). Social Equity and Large Mining Projects: Voluntary Industry Initiatives, Public Regulation and Community Development Agreements. Journal of Business Ethics, 132(1), 91–103.
O’Faircheallaigh, C. (2016). Negotiations in the Indigenous World: Aboriginal Peoples and the Extractive Industry in Australia and Canada. Routledge.
O’Faircheallaigh, C. (2018). Using Revenues from Indigenous Impact and Benefit Agreements: Building Theoretical Insights. Canadian Journal of Development Studies / Revue Canadienne d’études Du Développement, 39(1), 101–118.
O’Faircheallaigh, C. (2020). Impact and benefit agreements as Monitoring Instruments in the Minerals and Energy Industries. The Extractive Industries and Society, 7(4), 1338-1346.
O’Faircheallagih, C. (2021). Explaining Outcomes from Negotiated Agreements in Australia and Canada. Resources Policy. 70, 101922.
O’Faircheallaigh, C., & Corbett, T. (2005). Indigenous participation in environmental management of mining projects: The role of negotiated agreements. Environmental Politics, 14(5), 629–647.
Parlee, B., O’Neil, J., & Lutsel K’e Dene First Nation. (2007). The Dene way of life: Perspectives on health from Canada’s North. Journal of Canadian Studies. 41 (3), 112-133,
Papillon, M., & Rodon, T. (2017). Proponent-Indigenous Agreements and the Implementation of the right to Free, Prior, and Informed Consent in Canada. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 62, 216–224.
Peletz, N., & Hanna. K. (2019). Gender Analysis and Impact Assessment: Canadian and International Experiences. Canadian International Resources and Development Institute (CIRDI), Vancouver.
Prno, J., Bradshaw, B., & Lapierre, D. (2010). Impact and Benefit Agreements: Are they working? Trailhead Consulting. Accessed at:
Rasmussen, D., & Guillou, J. (2012). Developing an Inuit-specific Framework for Culturally Relevant Health Indicators Incorporating Gender-based Analysis. Journal of Aboriginal Health 8 (2): 24.
Rodon, T., Lemus-Lauzon, I., & Schott, S. (2018). Impact and Benefit Agreement (IBA) Revenue Allocation Strategies for Indigenous Community Development. Northern Review, 47(47), 9–29.
Sarkar, S., Gow-Smith, A., Morakinyo, T. A., Frau, R., Kuniholm, M., & Otto, J. M. (2010). Mining Community Development Agreements—Practical Experiences and Field Studies. Accessed at: https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Mining-community-development-agreements-practical-Bocoum-Sarkar/9b9cb066d719beccb8fd5f569df8c99dbdcc2316.
Shanks, G., & Lopes, S. (2006). Sharing in the Benefits of Resource Developments: A Study of First Nations-Industry Impact Benefits Agreement. The Public Policy Forum. Accessed at: https://ppforum.ca/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/Sharing-in-the-Benefits-of-Resource-Development-PPF-report.pdf.
Siebenmorgen, P., & Bradshaw, B. (2011). Re-conceiving Impact and Benefit Agreements as instruments of Aboriginal community development in northern Ontario, Canada. Oil, Gas & Energy Law Journal (OGEL), 9.
St-Laurent, G. P., & LeBillon, P. (2015). Staking Claims and Shaking Hands: Impact and Benefit Agreements as a Technology of Government in the Mining Sector. The Extractive Industries and Society, 2(3), 590–602.
Sulyandziga, L. (2019). Indigenous Peoples and extractive industry encounters: Benefit-sharing agreements in Russian Arctic. Polar Science, 21, 68–74.
Squamish Nation (Skwx̱wú7mesh Úxwumixw). (2021). Woodfibre LNG and Fortis BC Project Updates. Accessed at: https://www.squamish.net/lng-updates.
Tulaeva, S., & Nysten-Haarala., S. (2019). Resource Allocation in Oil-Dependent Communities: Oil Rent and Benefit Sharing Arrangements. Resources 8, no. 2: 86.
Tysiachniouk, M. S., & Petrov, A. N. (2018). Benefit sharing in the Arctic Energy Sector: Perspectives on Corporate Policies and Practices in Northern Russia and Alaska. Energy Research & Social Science, 39, 29–34.
Tysiachniouk, M., Henry, L. A., Lamers, M., & van Tatenhove, J. P. M. (2018). Oil and Indigenous people in sub-Arctic Russia: Rethinking equity and governance in benefit sharing agreements. Energy Research & Social Science, 37, 140–152.
US DOE. (2017). Guide to Advancing Opportunities for Community Benefits through Energy Project Development. US Department of Energy (USDE). Accessed at: https://www.energy.gov/diversity/community-benefit-agreement-cba-toolkit.
United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII). (2004). Report on the Third Session. Economic and Social Council Official Records No. 23. Accessed at: https://undocs.org/E/C.19/2004/23
Woodward & Co. and Nanwakolas Council (2009). Benefit Sharing Agreements in British Columbia: A Guide for First Nations, Businesses, and Governments. Woodward and Company. Accessed at: http://www.woodwardandcompany.com/wp-content/uploads/pdfs/4487_bene- fit_sharing_final_report_-_updated.pdf.
World Bank Group – Office of the Compliance Advisor Ombudsman (CAO). (2008). Advisory Note: A Guide to Designing and Implementing Grievance Mechanisms for Development Projects. Accessed at: http://www.cao-ombudsman.org/howwework/advisor/documents/implemgrieveng.pdf.
World Bank. (2012). Mining Community Development Agreements : Source Book. Washington, DC. Accessed at: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/12641.