CRITICAL ISSUE 6:
Implementation, Impact and Effectiveness
Although BAs may contain provisions for monitoring and evaluation, there is very little public information about frameworks, tools, and metrics for assessing the impact and effectiveness of implementation, particularly from the view of First Nations.
In their review of the BA literature, Caine and Krogman (2017) point out that most analyses frame BAs as a way to compensate for social and economic impacts, propose these instruments as tools to improve opportunities for more positive engagement, or develop standard criteria for assessing and comparing impacts.
Keenan and Sosa (2001) add that different variables affect the extent to which a BA may succeed in accomplishing
its objectives, such as how committed the parties are, how realistic their expectations, how much information the community has access to and how clearly drafted the agreement and its implementation plan are (see also, Bradshaw, Fidler and Wright, 2016).
Certain issue-framing strategies also affect which metrics and benchmarks are adopted to assess impact and effectiveness. In some cases, these can be highly sensitive political choices with serious consequences – for example, when analyses or audits of actual financial benefits are completed after the agreement is in place, and variance between promised and delivered amounts is shown, it can be very challenging to identify and rectify the sources and consequences of such differences in outcomes.
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AEM – Agnico Eagle Mines Limited
ASDF – Ahafo Sustainable Development Forum
AWBEN – Aboriginal Women’s Business Entrepreneurship Network
BA – Benefit Agreement BC British Columbia
BCFNDGI – BC First Nations Data Governance Initiative
BMZ German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development
BNL – Barrick Niugini Limited
BSA – Benefit Sharing Agreement
CBA – Community Benefit Agreement
CDA – Community Development Agreement
CIRNAC – Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada
DIO – Designated Inuit Organizations
EIA – Environmental Impact Assessment
EMB – Environmental Management Board
EWB-MSV – Engineers Without Borders Canada - Mining Shared Value Initiative
FNFTA – First Nations Financial Transparency Act
FNLNGA – First Nations Liquefied Natural Gas Alliance
FNNBOA – First Nations National Building Officer’s Association
FPIC – Free, Prior and Informed Consent
GIZ – German Development Agency
HIA – Health Impact Assessment
IA – Impact Assessment
IBA – Impact Benefit Agreement
ICMM – International Council on Mining and Metals
IFC – International Finance Corporation
IFI – International Financial Institution
IIBA – Innuit Impact Benefit Agreement
INAC – Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada
IOL – Inuit-Owned Lands
ISC – Indigenous Services Canada
KitIA – Kitikmeot Inuit Association
KivIA – Kivalliq Inuit Association
KLC – Kimberley Land Council
LIA – Labrador Innuit Association
LLG – Local Level Government
LNG – Liquefied Natural Gas
M&E – Monitoring and Evaluation
NADeF – Newmont Ahafo Development Foundation
NLC – Northern Land Council
NLCA – Nunavut Land Claims Agreement
NTI – Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated
OSR – Own-Source Revenue
PJV – Porgera Joint Venture
PSAB – Procurement Strategy for Aboriginal Business
QIA – Qikiqtani Inuit Association
SEMC – Socio-Economic Monitoring Committee
SML – Special Mining Lease
TCS – Tax Credit Scheme
UNDRIP – United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
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