CRITICAL ISSUE 11:
Gender issues and considerations are important for understanding how communities can maximize benefits from development. Although studies that use gender-based analysis specific to the LNG sector are not widely available, studies completed in other resource sectors such as mining and forestry raise a number of relevant considerations.
Scholars and practitioners working on BAs acknowledge that increasing representation alone does not guarantee that meaningful inclusion in governance spaces will follow. As an area of further research, it should be noted that elected women council members involved in BA negotiations could also offer deeper insights into gender dynamics and power-relations in BA-related in governance and decision-making. Further analysis is also warranted given the strong representation of women in spaces such as the FNLNGA’s governance structures.
In practice, systemic gender-based discrimination can be reproduced in BAs, and this can limit women’s participation. These impacts can include women’s loss of traditional rights to make decisions about land and resources (Keenan, Kemp and Ramsay, 2014). Analysis is also important to identify patterns of exclusion that are magnified or even result from BAs. For instance, these groups could include middle-aged women who had yet to acquire the status of ‘elder’; young women and young mothers; women (and their families) who have married or migrated into the community; women in male-headed households; and female-headed households (e.g., widows and single mothers) (Keenan, Kemp and Ramsay, 2014, 611).
While the use of an intersectional gender lens is widely accepted and practiced in the development sector, consideration of gender is often absent in community-level practice across a variety of sectors. This is important because gender differences and gender relations are invariably linked to social inequality, marginalization and exclusion from development opportunities.
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AEM – Agnico Eagle Mines Limited
ASDF – Ahafo Sustainable Development Forum
AWBEN – Aboriginal Women’s Business Entrepreneurship Network
BA – Benefit Agreement BC British Columbia
BCFNDGI – BC First Nations Data Governance Initiative
BMZ German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development
BNL – Barrick Niugini Limited
BSA – Benefit Sharing Agreement
CBA – Community Benefit Agreement
CDA – Community Development Agreement
CIRNAC – Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada
DIO – Designated Inuit Organizations
EIA – Environmental Impact Assessment
EMB – Environmental Management Board
EWB-MSV – Engineers Without Borders Canada - Mining Shared Value Initiative
FNFTA – First Nations Financial Transparency Act
FNLNGA – First Nations Liquefied Natural Gas Alliance
FNNBOA – First Nations National Building Officer’s Association
FPIC – Free, Prior and Informed Consent
GIZ – German Development Agency
HIA – Health Impact Assessment
IA – Impact Assessment
IBA – Impact Benefit Agreement
ICMM – International Council on Mining and Metals
IFC – International Finance Corporation
IFI – International Financial Institution
IIBA – Innuit Impact Benefit Agreement
INAC – Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada
IOL – Inuit-Owned Lands
ISC – Indigenous Services Canada
KitIA – Kitikmeot Inuit Association
KivIA – Kivalliq Inuit Association
KLC – Kimberley Land Council
LIA – Labrador Innuit Association
LLG – Local Level Government
LNG – Liquefied Natural Gas
M&E – Monitoring and Evaluation
NADeF – Newmont Ahafo Development Foundation
NLC – Northern Land Council
NLCA – Nunavut Land Claims Agreement
NTI – Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated
OSR – Own-Source Revenue
PJV – Porgera Joint Venture
PSAB – Procurement Strategy for Aboriginal Business
QIA – Qikiqtani Inuit Association
SEMC – Socio-Economic Monitoring Committee
SML – Special Mining Lease
TCS – Tax Credit Scheme
UNDRIP – United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
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